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Altera MAX 7000S Programming

Quartus II

Programming the EPM7128S Using Quartus II

Quartus II is the development tool for the full range of Altera FPGAs and CPLDs, a free edition of the software is available to download from the Quartus II Web Edition webpage. The software is continually being updated as new Altera devices are developed, at each software release, support for some legacy devices may be dropped. At the time of writing this page, the current version is Quartus II 13.1, the last version to support the MAX7000 family was Quartus II 13.0 SP1, legacy versions of the software are available from the Quartus II Web Edition downloads page.

As might be expected, Quartus II is a very powerful and flexible tool, the downside of that power and flexibility is the complexity of the software. Altera have produced a large quantity of documentation and training materials for Quartus II, a selection of which are available for download from via the links at the bottom of this page. This subset of the Altera document suite and my notes on using Quartus II in these pages only provides an introduction to the software, covering the basics necessary to program the CPLD used in MTXPlus+. For more comprehensive instructions, help and training materials, refer to the Quartus II Documentation page on the Altera website

Hardware Test Bed

Rather than trying to go straight to development of the glue logic for MTXPlus, I thought that it was a better idea to experiment by developing some test programs that could be executed on a simple hardware test device.

To be able to exercise the programmed logic and display the resultant outputs, a board with basic inputs and outputs from switches and LEDs will do the job, so I have built a hardware test bed that was used to develop my skills and test the MTXPlus CPLD logic.

You can find the details on this page.

The test bed having done its job and given me a little more confidence with Quartus II, I was now ready to move on to developing the glue logic for MTXPlus+. The remainder of this page gives a very high level view of design development using Quartus II

Quartus II Design Flow

Overview

Quartus II provides a fully integrated suite of design components that are available for use during all phases of CPLD and FPGA design.

The flow chart opposite illustrates the complete design process from creation of the design through to programming of the target device.

The various stages in the design flow are well explained in the Quartus II documentation. The Altera manuals should be the primary reference when using the product. They are comprehensive, that is very large, and many of the topics are not relevant to small, CPLD, designs such as mine. This page is intended to give a minimal overview of Quartus II and its use in MTXPlus+.

Quartus II supports a number of different design entry methods: Schematic entry, block diagrams and Hardware Description Languages (AHDL, VHDL, Verilog and System Verilog). As the diagram shows, a design can be developed using more than one type of design entry method.

To begin with, I shall be using Schematic Entry - this should allow me to get some familiarity with Quartus II and the EPM7128S, including programming, compilation, simulation, I/O allocation and downloading to the CPLD through the JTAG interface. I may need to use text entry at some point to enter the memory decoding equations in one of the HDLs.

Schematic Design Entry

A typical example of a small schematic created using the Quartus II schematic editor.

This is the easiest way to get started designing for the CPLD - hence the reason I'm using it !

Quartus II includes a number of libraries of varying complexity that can be used to implement the required design

At the most basic level, the libraries include the basic logic gates such as AND, OR, etc., as well as a number of larger size gates that are not normally available in hardware, such as 12 input NAND gates and the like.

Going a step beyond basic logic gates, Quartus II also includes a library of standard 74 series logic components, e.g., the 74xx240 and 74xx393 shown here.

These function blocks make it very easy to implement traditional logic designs inside the CPLD.

Quartus II also includes a large number of what Altera term "megafunctions", To quote from Altera, "Megafunctions are ready-made, parameterized, pre-tested blocks of intellectual property that are optimized to make efficient use of the architecture of the targeted programmable device."

The megafunction blocks include "Libraries of Parameterised Modules" (LPM) such as the example shown of a LPM_COUNTER module. When added to a schematic the module is tailored to the application by adjusting the appropriate parameters.

This is an example of an LPM_COUNTER instantiated in a schematic as lpm_counter0 with the parameters set to create a 5-bit up counter. It is used here to produce sub-clocks from a 32MHz source clock.

NB: This example does not confirm to Altrera's recommended design practices, but it does illustrate the use of an LPM.

Functional Simulation

Once the design has been entered, the circuit can be tested in functional simulation. Test waveforms can be entered and used to verify that operation of the circuit is as intended.

At this stage, there may be timing issues that would prevent the design from operating as intended once the device timing limitations are taken into account.

Constraints

Once the design has been entered, the Assignments menu in the Settings dialog can be used to specify initial design constraints, such as pin assignments, device options, logic options, and timing constraints.

By default, during compilation, Quartus II is free to choose which pins on the device are used for the inputs and outputs in the design.

The TimeQuest analyzer determines the timing relationships that must be met for the design to correctly function, and checks arrival times against required times to verify timing.

 

Synthesis

Synthesis is the process of converting the design into a circuit made up of the logic elements (LEs) from the CPLD (or FGPA).

 

The software optimizes the logic by eliminating redundant terms and generating a netlist, (a connection list) that is a complete description of the circuit.

If required, the resultant netlist can be exported in text form for use by other EDA tools

Quartus II includes a number of graphical netlist viewers, including the RTL Viewer shown here.

This is the top level netlist view of the LPM_COUNTER seen earlier, used to generate a number of sub-clocks from the source clock.

By drilling down into the hierarchy, you can see how the logic is produced from the fundamental logic blocks, e.g., AND and OR gates and flip-flops etc.

 

Place & Route

The next step is to map the netlist into the target device using the Quartus II Fitter.

 

Using the database that has been created by Analysis & Synthesis, the Fitter matches the logic and timing requirements of the project with the available resources of the target device. It assigns each logic function to the best logic cell location for routing and timing, and selects appropriate interconnection paths and pin assignments.

 

Analyzing Fitting Results

Quartus II includes several tools to aid in the analysis of the design compilation and fitting phases. The Message window and Report window provide fitting results information.

The Chip Planner (shown) provides a GUI that allows you to view the logic placement made by the fitter and/or user assignments, lock regions of logic and view routing congestion.

This condensed view, shows 4 LABs (A, B, C and D) with LAB-A selected - indicated by the blue frame. The four blocks to the left are the reserved I/O pins - 1,2, 83 & 84 - in this case, pin 83 assigned to the external clock (clk)

Resource elements in the chip planner are colour coded, the different colours representing different resources such as pin assignment status, logic cells etc. A changing colour gradient represents percent utilisation, with minimum utilisation at the left and maximum utilisation at the right.

In the image above, the selected element is indicted by the blue block with the details on the selected element displayed in the right hand window.

The Chip Planner also allows you to view the node fan-out and fan-in for specific structures, or view the paths between specific nodes.

Fit Optimisation

Several Fit optimisation options are available, including the Resource Optimisation Adviser and the Design Space Explorer 

 

Timing Analysis

The Quartus II TimeQuest Timing Analyser is a static timing analyzer that "validates the timing performance of all logic in your design using an industry-standard constraint, analysis, and reporting methodology. It supports the industry-standard SynopsysŪ Design Constraints (SDC) format." [See the Altera TimeQuest resource page for more details]

My MAX7128S Timing page gives a very brief overview of the timing parameters applicable to the MAX7128S.

Using the constraints menu of the TimeQuest Timing Analyser, you can specify timing constraints for elements of the design, including I/O pins, clock settings, I/O delays.

Once the initial timing analysis is complete, timing simulations are performed on the design to ensure that there are no problems due to the specific delays in the target device.

Timing Closure

The Timing Closure flow optimises the timing to meet the timing goals by controlling the Synthesis and Place & Route functions.

 

Programming & Configuration

The Quartus II Assembler module generates programming files that are downloaded to the device using the appropriate Altera programming hardare - in this case, the USB Blaster.

When a design is successfully compiled, the Fitter's device, logic cell and pin assignments are converted into a programming image that can be loaded to the device.

The Programmer option is accessed from the Quartus II  Tools menu option from where the program is downloaded to the target device

 

 

Quartus II Resources

For comprehensive instructions, help and training materials, refer to the

Quartus II Documentation page on the Altera website

Title Publisher
Quartus II Handbook - Version 13.1, QII5V1-13.1.0, November 2013
    3 Volumes, 1681 Pages, 38 MB PDF

 

 Volume 1: Design and Synthesis (890 pages)
   Volume 2: Design Implementation and Optimization ( 299 pages)
   Volume 3: Verification (402 pages)
Altera
   
Introduction to Quartus II Software - Version 1.0, May 2011

The product sales brochure, gives a very high level overview

Altera
Quick Start Guide for Quartus II Software -Version 7.2, Oct 2007 Altera
LPM Quick Reference Guide - December 1996 Altera
Integer Arithmetic Megafunctions User Guide - UG-01063 - June 2010 Altera
TimeQuest Timing Analyser - QII53018-13.1.0 - November 2013 Altera
The TimeQuest Timing Analyser Quick Start Tutorial - December 2009 Altera
The TimeQuest Cookbook - MNL-01035-1.3 - January 2011 Altera
Timing Analysis Overview - QII53030-12.0.0 - June 2012 (Version 12) Altera
Timing Analysis Overview - QII53030-14.0.0 - June 2012 (Version 14) Altera
   

Altera Training Materials

 
Quartus II  Basic Training, PowerPoint Presentation from 2005 Altera
Quartus II Software Design Series : Foundation from 2008 Altera
   

 

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