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The Memotech MTX Series

MTX  / Z80 Assembly - Under RISCOS

Introduction

Many years ago, Martin Allcorn wrote a Z80 assembler in BBCBASIC for RISCOS to run on his Acorn Archimedes. These days, Martin runs his assembler on a Raspberry Pi running RISCOS and uses it to do all the development work for our MTX based add-ons. Although Martin has made the assembler freely available, I don't think that anyone else is using it, and any users of our hardware just download compiled versions of EPROM code etc. as required.

Whilst Martin's assembler is fully functional, it does have some "quirks" that make it a little awkward for a novice to use, particularly as there is no documentation for the assembler and it only runs on RISCOS.

In 2019, while Bill Brendling was working to add CFX-II emulation to his MEMU-Pi system, he needed to analyse some of the CFX-II code during his debugging of MEMU-Pi. To make things easier, Bill wrote an assembler in Python 3 that worked with Martin's assembler source files.

A copy of Martin's Assembler can be downloaded from the bottom of the page and Bill's Python based assembler can be downloaded from this page.


Documentation - There isn't any :-)


During the course of Bill's discussions with Martin, a few snippets of information that might be useful to anyone wanting to make use of Martin's assembler or Bill's Python implementation came out. I have included a few brief notes on this page.

Q. What is the difference between ORG and OFFSET in your assembler?
A. My assembler is written in BBC BASIC and is heavily influenced by the one in BBC BASIC. Because I'm running it on the 32 bit Arm version of BBC BASIC I can build images greater than 64k in size. (I usually have it set to use 128k as that's the size of most of my "stock"  flash chips). To do that the assembler keeps multiple pointers.
 
ORG is the origin of the code within the image equivalent of P% on the BBC.
OFFSET on the other hand, is the option to assemble for a different address like O% on the BBC.
 
Offset assembly is heavily used when building paged ROMs like the MTXPlus+ or the various CFX options   What the assembler does when it encounters OFFSET is calculate the difference between the current assembly position and the run time address and add (or subtract) them from any future address calculations.
 
Q. What does OFFSET with no address mean?
A. OFFSET on it's own cancels the offset assembly by setting the difference back to 0 (like aligning P% and O%).
 
Building the SDX and CPM ROMs is made more complicated by the references back to the MTX ROM in the SDX extensions, and the CPM ROM having to re-locate into RAM.

So the build script builds the 3 basic ROMs first, so that all the BASIC/OS labels are available to the SDX sources. The addresses could have been hard coded as in the original source, however the build code started from the MTXPlus+ code base and for that the system ROMs can (and have) change so the SDX ROM has to have access to the actual labels.

The Build also puts the ROMs in the same place within a 64k image as they would have been in the MTXPlus+. OS in the first 8k, ASSEM next, and then  BASIC in the 16-24k area, but offset to run at 8-16k. (In the MTXPlus+ build there are 7 page ROMs and 1 fixed which fills all of the 64k space)

The CPM ROM sits in the MTXPlus+ ROM image in the 40-48k range, so the Origin for assembly is #A000 (found in the CPMboot source file) When running in ROM, the code will be at #2000 so there's an offset instruction at the start of the same file. Once CPM is running, it runs in RAM so uses a different offset (see CPMzmon1).

The code you pointed to in vectors, is to fill the last section in high memory where the CPM BDOS has been patched to expect the hardware drivers, the ORG statement tells the assembler where to put it within the build space, since offset assembly is already in use at that point, there's no need for the matching OFFSET as the assembler automatically keeps that in step, but the comment is there in case there's issues.

The SDX ROM is assembled into the 48-56k range, but with offsets so hat the ROM based part is assembled for 8-16k, and the RAM based part the occupy the correct area between the CPM BDOS and BASIC's system variables.
 
   
Q. How does your assembler handle conflicting labels? Use the first definition, the last one, something depending upon the include nesting, or otherwise?  
A. Any inconsistent label and the assembler will throw an error on pass 2, but only if the run time address changes. So where you're getting CPMtrust appearing to be at BFE7 (where it sits) and FFE7 (where it runs), my assembler only sees the FFE7 address so there's no conflict.  
   
Q. What is the significance of the ",281" at the end of the file names?  
A. 281 is the RiscOs file type I use for Z80 assembler source code. The assembler creates a 2nd file to hold he build number which increments each time a source file is sent to the assembler.  
For the record I use 280 for the file type for the Z80 binary, 180 for a Z180 binary and 181 for Z180 source. Both the Z80 and Z180 will assemble the other assembler's files if they're included, though the Z80 version will error if it encounters a Z180 only opcode.
   


 

 

Zip Version Description
  Martin's Z80 Assembler for BBC BASIC under RISCOS

NB : The Assembler is in the form of a zipped ARCFS archive, it is NOT a PC Zip file. Read the "instructions" file for more details and restrictions on its use.
     
     
     
     
     

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